For the most part, columns in the Canvas Gradebook are controlled by Assignment settings. The columns are generated whenever an Assignment, Quiz, or Discussion is added.

If you wish to create a column in the Gradebook for an activity that is not submitted online (e.g., attendance), you will need to create an Assignment for that activity and then set the Submission Type to No Submission.

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Go to Canvas Instructor Guide > How do I add details to an assignment? to learn more.